Apples of Gold in Settings of Silver is a Word Spoken at the Right Time ab 54.9 EURO The Translation of Biblical Metaphors in Hausa and Swahili
The most astonishing thing in life about time is that it brings so much reality and peace to understanding to those who believe The Sokoto Caliphate was an independent Islamic Caliphate, in West Africa. Founded during the jihad of the Fulani War in 1809 by Usman dan Fodio,it was abolished when the British defeated the Caliph in 1903 and put the area under the Northern Nigeria Protectorate. The independent Hausa kingdoms, at its height the Caliphate linked over 30 different emirates and over 10 million people in the most powerful state in its region and one of the most significant empires in Africa in the nineteenth century. The caliphate was a loose confederation of emirates that recognized the suzerainty of the "commander of the faithful", the sultan or caliph. The caliphate brought decades of economic growth throughout the region. An estimated one to 2.5 million non-Muslim slaves were captured during jihad. They provided labor for plantations and were provided an opportunity to become Muslims. Though the British abolished the political authority of the Caliph the title of Sultan was retained, and remains an important religious leader in Nigeria today.
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Migrant Hausa settlements in Yorubaland, popularly known as Sabo, are small geographic areas where Hausa migrants conjugate together to create a distinctive socio-political quarter to foster their cultural heritage and economic interests in the midst of a different ethnic group, while at the same time owing some informal contractual obligations to the Yoruba. The rise of ubiquitous Hausa settlements in some major Yoruba cities is mostly attributed to the inter-ethnic or long distance trading networks that developed overtime in West Africa. The exact time-line is unknown but span a millennium.
Over the last few decades, linguists have devoted considerable attention to both homogeneity and variation in the expression of causal events across languages. However, most studies, whether typological or language-specific, have focused on the category of morphologically overt (e.g., ‘lie/lay X down’) causatives, rather neglecting complex periphrastic (e.g., ‘get X to lie down’) formations. The present study addresses this imbalance by elucidating a wide spectrum of causative expressions in Hausa (Chadic/Afroasiatic), supported by a strong cross-linguistic perspective. It systematically explores, for the first time in an African language, the key design features that distinguish the two mechanisms. Also, it demonstrates that Hausa periphrastic causatives can also differ from each other, e.g., in implicational strength, depending on the modal (TAM) properties of the lower clause. In line with contemporary approaches located within a general typology of causation, the analysis invokes the widely accepted dichotomy between direct and indirect causative constructions. Direct causation associates with morphological causatives, indirect causation with periphrastic expressions – compare morphological ‘I lay X down’ (direct, with no intermediary) with periphrastic ‘I got X to lie down’ (indirect, where X also functions as an intervening actor/cause). Thus, this study provides a rare account of how the two types are used to describe pragmatically different causal events and participant roles.
The author argues in this book that this is the best time to be a minority in Nigeria and that while the big tribes of Igbo, Hausa/Fulani and Yoruba constitute the three legs of the Nigerian tripod, the South-South represents the ring that connects or braces them together. He illustrates his thesis with examples of almost wholesale dominance of the media and banking businesses by those belonging to minority ethnic groups in Nigeria.
Writing African History is an essential work for anyone who wants to write, or even seriously read, African history. It will replace Daniel McCall's classic Africa in Time Perspective as the introduction to African history for the next generation and as a reference for professional historians, interested readers, and anyone who wants to understand how African history is written. Africa in Time Perspective was written in the 1960s, when African history was a new field of research. This new book reflects the development of African history since then. It opens with a comprehensive introduction by Daniel McCall, followed by a chapter by the editor explaining what African history is (and is not) in the context of historical theory and the development of historical narrative, the humanities, and social sciences. The first half of the book focuses on sources of historical data while the second half examines different perspectives on history. The editor's final chapter explains how to combine various sorts of evidence into a coherent account of African history. Writing African History will become the most important guide to African history for the 21st century. CONTRIBUTORS: BALA ACHI, ISAAC OLAWALE ALBERT, DIEDRE L. BADIJO, DOROTHEA BEDIGIAN, BARBARA M. COOPER, HENRY JOHN DREWAL, CHRISTOPHER EHRET, TOYIN FALOLA, DAVID HENIGE, JOSEPH E. HOLLOWAY, JOHN HUNWICK, S.O.Y. KEITA, WILLIAM G. MARTIN, DANIEL MCCALL, SUSAN KEECH MCINTOSH, DONATIEN DIBWE DIA MWEMBU, KATHLEEN SHELDON, JOHN THORNTON, AND MASAO YOSHIDA John Edwards Philips is professor of international society, Hirosaki University, and author of Spurious Arabic: Hausa and Colonial Nigeria (Madison, University of Wisconsin African StudiesCenter, 2000).
Mandated by the general session of the Nigeria Conference, this book was originally written in Hausa, and is now available for the first time in English.
A Synopsis of the Bura Project The three major rationale for writing this book are primarily to: through the study of African language family groups trace the origin of the tribe to a more specific location rather than the diffused response of ?from the East?; secondly to investigate why and how the word ?Pabir/Babur? came on the scene referring to a separate ethnic group different or the same as the Bura and thirdly to document some of the vanishing Bura cultural practices and deeds. For example what their beliefs are, their marriage practices, local industries and what they do to pass time. It is my strong belief that the first objective is accomplished through our analysis and presentation of the Proto-Afro-asiatic linguistic family classification group and its subgroup the Proto-Chadic of which the Biu-Mandara forms a sub-branch. Through a systemic and vigorous study of the classification of the different languages comprising this Proto Family of languages and its sub-branches we are able to assert that the Bura people were among many other ethnic groups part of a group whose origin can be traced to the Levant region of south west Asia and the Middle-East. They belong to the group that forms ?back to Africa migration?. This is because modern genetic studies of languages indicate that they?re the only group that have traces of Y chromosome belonging to haplogroup R1b R-V88 in Africa but found mainly in Asia and Europe. After tracing the influences of the powerful Kanem (ca. 700-1376) and later Bornu-Kanem (1380-1893) empires around the Lake Chad region as well as the kingdom of Mandara (founded in about 1459, i.e. end of the 15th century), in what is today modern Cameroon on the inhabitants of the region, we conclude a chaotic period of migrations and wars, including trade in slaves. It is through this prism that we notice the emergence of the founder of the Woviri dynasty of Biu. Through his failure to win the Maiship of Bornu, he moved to Mandara and then the Plateau of Biu with some of his followers or relatives. Being a student of History Abdulahi or who later became Yamta-ra-wala attempted to replicate what the Kanembu were able to do among the local people they conquered some centuries earlier; they created an ethnicity and language called Kanuri. Yamta-ra-wala succeeded somewhat, but wasn?t able to completely conquer the Bura people and turn them in his new ethnic vision. Instead the Buras went to the hills to fight him the next day. The new breed he created he called ?Pabir? or Babur as the Hausa would call them. The myth of who Yamta-ra-wala is has for the present eclipsed historians and would probably continue for some time to come. As for the Bura (Most have down the hill-tops and mountains!) and the Pabir they have never been closer than today. Today for all practical purposes they are one and the same ethnic group, they?ve intermingled more than any two previously separated groups. Their vocabulary, phonology and cultural practices have fused into one in most instances.
Hiamnda, the language of the Jaba people located in the central part of the Middle Belt area of Nigeria. It is spoken by a myriad of Jaba people groups who, by and large, may speak the main hiam Ham language, but may have vernacular variations of the language. Less than a decade ago, Hiamnda was on the verge of total obliteration, even though there are approximately a million of Hamnda in existence; this downturn of lingual fortunes for this language is not too far removed from the social, but vicious malady that has afflicted most, if not all, languages in the technological age, namely cultural warfare. This cultural warfare continues to leave in its wake 'corpses' of dead languages; one that cease to exist either to none use or that they have been so adulterated to the point that such languages or that they have such adulteration that of necessity leads to total absorption into some of their surrounding major language or its demise. This was the case with Hiamnda and the Hausa language and more. A new phenomenon called the 'Yan Baraki generation' sauntered into this already caustic mix; this particular group of Jabans you that were now exposed to not only the Hausa language, but also the English the 'yan baraki generation' viewed as superior to both Hausa and Hiamnda languages. Furthermore, many of the 'yan baraki generation' based on the fact that their parents' generation did not encourage them to speak the language, eventually start to not even learn or speak the language and aided by parental resources all dumped toward their academic pursuits in English, the language of enlightenment and advancement, but to the total neglect of their own native language. These hard time helped to render Hiamnda not only impotent, but ready to fall the dangerous cliff of oblivion. Lryak Kyuk Bgya Tseng Jok'o Di Hiamnda is a third edition of word lists that have been published in Hiamnda by me. Through the grace of God, Almighty these efforts have been paid off and been able to wrest the falling fortune of our language and to put back it back on the track of living human languages currently extant.